Optimisation of empirical antimicrobial therapy in patients with haematological malignancies and febrile neutropenia (How Long study): an open-label, randomised, controlled phase 4 trial

How Long? the just Continuation of empirical antimicrobial therapy (EAT) for febrile neutropenia in patients with haematological malignancies until neutrophil recovery could prolong the therapy innecessarily. We did an investigator-driven, superiority, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 4 clinical trial in six hospitals in Spain. For the experimental group, EAT was withdrawn after 72 h or more…

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Genomics of Extensively Drug-Resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa

REIPI researchers coordinated by the Hospital Son Espases Group have analyzed the molecular epidemiology and the whole genome sequencing resistome of a large collection of XDR P. aeruginosa strains isolated from Spanish hospitals. The main conclusions of the study are as follows: (1) Most strains were resistant to all antipseudomonal agents except colistin, amikacin and…

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High Resolution Melting Assay to detect azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus

The global emergence of azole resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strains is a growing public health concern. Different patterns of azole resistance are linked to mutations in cyp51A. The Mycology Reference Laboratory of the National Centre for Microbiology has developed and validated a new screening sequencing-free molecular method based in a High Resolution Melting (HRM) assay to…

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Empiric Therapy with Carbapenem-Sparing Regimens for Bloodstream Infections due to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase–Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Results from the INCREMENT Cohort.

This study, in advance access published in Clinical Infectious Diseases in August 2017, was coordinated at University Hospital Virgen Macarena with the collaboration of a large number of hospitals belonging to the REIPI/ESGBIS/INCREMENT group included in the REIPI network. The most relevant results, described below, can have a significant impact in the treatment and outcome…

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Cellular Response to Ciprofloxacin in Low-Level Quinolone-Resistant Escherichia coli

Machuca J, Recacha E, Briales A, Díaz-de-Alba P, Blazquez J, Pascual Á, Rodríguez-Martínez JM. Unidad Intercentros de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Microbiología y Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena y Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain; Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío/Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas/Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; Red Española de Investigación…

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Quinolone resistance reversion by targeting the SOS response

E. Recacha, J. Machuca, P. Díaz de Alba, M. Ramos-Güelfo, F. Docobo-Pérez, J. Rodriguez-Beltrán, J. Blázquez, A. Pascual, J.M. Rodríguez-Martínez. Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Microbiología y Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Seville, Spain; Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain; Red Española de Investigación en Patología Infecciosa (REIPI), Instituto de Salud Carlos III,…

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The population of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae is distinct and more clonal than the carbapenem-susceptible population

Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have emerged in recent years as one of the most important threat for public health. Some high-risk clones of Klebsiella pneumoniae, mainly KPC-producing ST258 but also OXA-48-producing ST395 or ST15, have been incriminated in the worldwide spread of carbapenemases. However, little was known about the population structure of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae in…

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Late onset aspergillosis among kidney transplant recipients -Estudio colaborativo sobre aspergilosis pulmonar invasiva en portadores de trasplante renal –

A multinational retrospective case-control study was developed to asses risk factors of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis among kidney transplant recipients (Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2017 [advanced publication online]). Controls were matched (1:1 ratio) by center and date of transplantation. Sixty-one patients (and their corresponding controls) of 29 hospitals from 10 countries of Europe and the Americas…

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Human neutrophils kill Acinetobacter

Using different advanced microscopy techniques, a group of researchers from the REIPI network demonstrated that human neutrophils easily phagocytose and kill Acinetobacter baumannii and A. pittii. After bacteria-cell contact, neutrophils rapidly and continuously engulf and kill bacteria during at least 4 hours of infection in vitro. Also, neutrophils release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) against Acinetobacter.…

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Blocking cell-wall recycling to potentiate the activity of β-lactams and fosfomycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

REPI researchers from H. Son Espases and CNB-CSIC, in collaboration with Canadian and Australian researchers, have evaluated the interconnection between peptidoglycan (PG) recycling, fosfomycin susceptibility and synergy between fosfomycin and β-lactams in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mutants defective in AmpG, NagZ or all three AmpD amidases showed a marked increase in fosfomycin susceptibility. Moreover, fosfomycin MICs were…

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